Introduction to Lora gateways

Introduction to Lora gateways

Lora gateways are radio elements that serve as communication tools within a Lora network between end devices and a LoRaWAN network server.

Lora has the benefit that the wireless range for data transportation is exceptionally extreme, and the energy consumption is incomplete, thus allowing for extremely long battery life under the Lora gateway.


You may simultaneously evaluate and process data from several devices using the rule engine, and you can also initiate actions as necessary. Activities include downlinks, delivering SMS or email alerts, and data aggregation.

How does a Lora gateway work?

  • Lora gateways are radio modules fitted with a Lora concentrator that permits Lora packets to be collected. Lora gateways include an operating method where the packet-forwarding software runs in the background under LoRaWAN.
  • In this manner, the network administrator has more scope in managing his gateway. The data rate between the end node and the Lora gateway is approximately low, but this is a necessary deduction to enable long-lasting battery existence and a high radio range under LoRaWAN.
  • The gateway is linked to a LoRaWAN server through high-frequency networks like WiFi, Ethernet, or cellular to provide end-to-end integration between Lora end nodes and the application attendant under the Lora gateway.
  • In a nutshell: All Lora gateways within the area of an end node receive detail from the gadget. Then, the gateways forward this detail to the LoRaWAN network server.
  • The network server removes duplicate data packets, verifies data integrity, and performs security checks before sending the content to the application server under the Lora gateway.

How many devices can link to a Lora gateway?

The number of end devices in a single Lora gateway depends on a few elements. Most importantly, the data size of the payload communicated by the sensor and the communication interval set on these end devices under the Lora gateway.

These two elements are used to ascertain the amount of air time the access has to exercise. However, environmental factors also influence this equation.

Because it is hard to predict access capacities, it is usually perfect for finding out through trial and misconception at the actual deployment site and verifying the maximum number of supported tools without compromising data packet loss under the Lora gateway.

How to install a Lora gateway?

  • Previously, we’ve discussed the consequence of the Antenna’s orientation, leaning on the setting and the location of the respective end devices under LoRaWAN. However, there are many other aspects to consider when assembling a Lora network with gateways and sensors.
  • Suppose your sensors are placed in a concrete-solid building with particularly thick barriers and a decent amount of windows under the Lora gateway. Examine setting your gateway outdoors next to the raising, with the Antenna aligned vertically.
  • It may seem unreasonable; however, your gateway’s reception will aid from the lower exhaustion of glass compared to concrete walls and ceilings under the Lora gateway.
  • The disadvantage to this scheme is that you will require an outdoor gateway that is much more expensive and challenging to maintain than an indoor gateway.

What are standard Lora gateways in the business?

There is already a wide diversity of gateways in the business, ensuring a healthy level of determination amongst certified manufacturers under the Lora gateway.

There are gateways for all kinds of estimates, but a single-channel gateway is avoided for most use cases due to the constraints mentioned above.

How does a Lora gateway link to the Lora network assistant?

Lora gateways can be seen as transparent links that forward the radio data packs to IP packets inversely. Typically, the Lora gateway connects with the LNS via WiFi, hardwired Ethernet, or cellular connection. Hence, standard IP connections connect gateways to the LoRaWAN network server.

Indoor vs. outdoor Lora gateways

  • Indoor gateways are less robust and not impervious to outdoor gateways. They are typically provided with case releases, which makes them unsuitable for formation outdoors, as water can enter through these releases triggering decomposition under the Lora gateway.
  • On the other hand, outdoor gateways are robust and engineered to be impermeable. Many outdoor impermeable gateways are IP67 accomplished, meaning they are completely protected against dust. They may even survive temporary engagements in the water of up to 30 minutes in declinations between 15cm and 1m.
  • Another attribute that makes a LoRaWAN gateway “impermeable” is the more extensive temperature ranges covered by the installed pieces.
  • Similar to other outdoor hardware, these tools are typically 3 to 6 times more costly than their indoor counterpart.

The difficulty with single-channel gateways

In terms of services, single-channel gateways are very limited. They can only receive a single spreading factor and one channel simultaneously under the Lora gateway. It leads to more-than-ideal approaches to various network solutions.

While some single-channel gateways can transition between different spreading factors and frequencies to stimulate multi-channel accesses, most of them only have approx 2% of the ability of a multi-channel gateway.

Gateways antennas

LoRaWAN gateways can present different types of antennas. There is no perfect type of Antenna; each has its pros and cons leaning on the use case in the system, as the transmission signal is never equally noticeable in every direction under the Lora gateway. The so-called radiation pattern describes it.

Caroline Frazier

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